US — prisoner rights — partial reversal — Krause In a significant prisoner case, a divided Third Circuit panel today ruled in favor of a prisoner whose suit alleged that USP Lewisburg administators retaliated against him for filing inmate grievances by moving him into a cell with another prisoner known for assaulting his cellmates.
Official names of South Africa The name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four formerly separate British colonies.
Sincethe long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". Sincethe Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa,   while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term " Azania ".
History of South Africa Prehistoric archaeology These finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at leastyears. Migrations that formed the modern Rainbow nation Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. They displaced, conquered and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples.
The Bantu slowly moved south. The earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around The southernmost group was the Xhosa peoplewhose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people.
As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations displaced or assimilated earlier peoples. In Mpumalanga Provinceseveral stone circles have been found along with the stone arrangement that has been named Adam's Calendar. The two major historic groups were the Xhosa and Zulu peoples.
Inthe Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias led the first European voyage to land in southern Africa. Dias continued down the western coast of southern Africa. After 8 Januaryprevented by storms from proceeding along the coast, he sailed out of sight of land and passed the southernmost point of Africa without seeing it.
He reached as far up the eastern coast of Africa as, what he called, Rio do Infante, probably the present-day Groot Riverin Maybut on his return he saw the Cape, which he first named Cabo das Tormentas Cape of Storms. Dutch colonisation See also: History of Cape Colony and Dutch Cape Colony Charles Davidson Bell 's 19th-century painting of Jan van Riebeeckwho founded the first European settlement in South Africa, arrives in Table Bay in By the early 17th century, Portugal's maritime power was starting to decline, and English and Dutch merchants competed to oust Lisbon from its lucrative monopoly on the spice trade.
Helena as alternative ports of refuge. The sailors were able to survive by obtaining fresh water and meat from the natives.
During the early s, many Dutch settlers departed from the Cape Colonywhere they had been subjected to British control. The Boers founded the Boer Republics: The discovery of diamonds in and gold in in the interior started the Mineral Revolution and increased economic growth and immigration.
This intensified British efforts to gain control over the indigenous peoples. The struggle to control these important economic resources was a factor in relations between Europeans and the indigenous population and also between the Boers and the British.
Following Lord Carnarvon 's successful introduction of federation in Canadait was thought that similar political effort, coupled with military campaigns, might succeed with the African kingdoms, tribal areas and Boer republics in South Africa. Among the obstacles were the presence of the independent states of the Boers and the Kingdom of Zululand and its army.
The Zulu nation defeated the British at the Battle of Isandlwana. Eventually, though, the war was lost, resulting in the termination of the Zulu nation's independence. Boers in combat The Boer Republics successfully resisted British encroachments during the First Boer War — using guerrilla warfare tactics, which were well suited to local conditions.
The British returned with greater numbers, more experience, and new strategy in the Second Boer War — but suffered heavy casualties through attrition ; nonetheless, they were ultimately successful. Independence Within the country, anti-British policies among white South Africans focused on independence.
During the Dutch and British colonial years, racial segregation was mostly informal, though some legislation was enacted to control the settlement and movement of native people, including the Native Location Act of and the system of pass laws.
The Union was a dominion that included the former territories of the CapeTransvaal and Natal colonies, as well as the Orange Free State republic. The amount of land reserved for indigenous peoples was later marginally increased.
It strengthened the racial segregation begun under Dutch and British colonial rule. Taking Canada 's Indian Act as a framework,  The nationalist government classified all peoples into three races and developed rights and limitations for each.
The legally institutionalized segregation became known as apartheid.Sep 29, · Haile Mariam Desalegn, 47, and a former University Professor at Arba Minch Water Technology, who was elected as the country’s new PM over the weekend, is the first leader of Ethiopia from the South in the history of the country.
Analysis in Brief. Each online issue of Analysis in Brief (AIB) tackles an academic medicine research topic, and presents a two-page, easy-to-read snapshot of the AAMC’s data collection and research activities. Topics are selected through a peer-review process and support the association’s strategic research agenda.
Funhouse - Album Reviews of Neil Young. This Note's For You - Neil Young Album Reviews.
Thrasher's Wheat - Neil Young and Crazy Horse. South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in attheheels.com is bounded to the south by 2, kilometres (1, mi) of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Swaziland (Eswatini); and.
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