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This paper was presented at the 5th European Conference: Slides for the presentation are available on Slideshare What is a level of competence? Spyridonos,Egaleo, Greece csgouro teiath. Levels may be specific to an area or, often, generic, in which case they are assessed for specific areas of ability.
Levels must first be defined in frameworks, and then competence concepts can be assigned levels following those frameworks. This is intended to contribute to effective interoperability specifications.
Examples of defined levels stretch back in history to craft guilds, and today they come in many forms. As a consequence, it is also valuable to have information about what courses of learning, education or training LET are designed to result in the acquisition of what competence.
With the widespread development of information and communications technology ICTit becomes important to be able to represent information about abilities and competence in ways that can easily be communicated electronically, so that ICT tools can process such information efficiently and effectively.
Such tools could potentially help individuals, institutions and employers in among other things designing, planning and recording LET; in expressing claims and requirements for abilities and competence; and in recruitment and selection.
Some attempts have been made to represent information about competence in standardised ways. This includes proficiency level, interest level, weight, ageing. In all cases known to the authors except eCOTOOL the representation of levels of competence is solely in terms of assignment, rather than definition, of levels.
The distinction will be clarified below. For assigning educational levels, a long-standing approach shared by many of the existing initiatives is with Dublin Core DC metadata.
DC has a term entitled "Audience Education Level" whose definition is "a class of entity, defined in terms of progression through an educational or training context, for which the described resource is intended. It offers an important step on the path towards interoperability of level definitions by including a model for level definition as well as a related definition of level assignment.
Useful concepts People generally want to compare people's ability, and to engage the most suitable person they can find for any particular job, from an organisational role of responsibility, to a one-off job anyone might ask a tradesperson to do. Informally, they may do this through word of mouth reputation, but this is liable to be unreliable, mainly because different people's view on what is "good" or "better" may differ, unless the scale is defined more precisely.
To achieve greater clarity, here a few useful concepts are defined. Rankable and binary ability An ability concept against which we can assess people as better or worse may be called a "rankable" concept, as in principle people can be ranked against it.
Sports and entertainment give many familiar examples of this. Whether someone is a better or worse football player, or a better or worse singer, is at least loosely correlated with how successful they are in their career and how much they are paid.
Rankable competence concepts from other areas could be seen to include programming ability, musical ability, typing speed and accuracy, linguistic proficiency in different languages. There are many more. In contrast, if an ability concept is expressed in a way that it is either possessed or not — "attained" or "not yet attained" — we call it a "binary" concept.
Examples of binary concepts might be: In each case, it is reasonable to expect an assessment to give a yes or no result. On the basis of understanding rankable and binary ability or competence concepts, it makes sense to think of levelling as an approach to defining binary concepts from out of what may be a rankable concept continuum.
Levels are one good way of giving better definition to a competence concept that allows judgements of better or worse. They are a step forward from simply letting individuals claim they are good at something. Level assignment and level definition A clear distinction can be made between the ideas of defining and assigning levels.
One can ask, what level of learning are particular materials and objects suitable for?Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
Contract law recognises and governs the rights and duties arising from agreements. In the Anglo-American common law, formation of a contract generally requires an offer, acceptance, consideration, and a mutual intent to be bound.
Assignment 5: Technical Term Paper (Part B) The Technical Term Paper will include the detailed response to the network design request. The document will be submitted in MS Word and will be between pages with graphics embedded within the document.
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