Like the names of many other surahs, this name has no special relation to the subject of the Surah but has been used merely as a symbol to distinguish it from other surahs. Period of Revelation The theme of this Surah indicates, and traditions support it, that it was revealed after the treaty of Hudaibiyah at the end of 6 A.
Varna Hinduism Varna literally means type, order, colour or class   and was a framework for grouping people into classes, first used in Vedic Indian society. It is referred to frequently in the ancient Indian texts. There are four varnas but thousands of jatis. This view has been disputed by other scholars, who believe it to be a secular social phenomenon driven by the necessities of economics, politics, and sometimes also geography.
Caste The term caste is not originally an Indian word, though it is now widely used, both in English and in Indian languages.
According to the Oxford English Dictionaryit is derived from the Portuguese casta, meaning "race, lineage, breed" and, originally, "'pure or unmixed stock or breed ". Ghurye wrote in that, despite much study by many people, we do not possess a real general definition of caste.
It appears to me that any attempt at definition is bound to fail because of the complexity of the phenomenon. On the other hand, much literature on the subject is marred by lack of precision about the use of the term.
His model definition for caste included the following six characteristics,  Segmentation of society into groups whose membership was determined by birth  A hierarchical system wherein generally the Brahmins were at the head of the hierarchy, but this hierarchy was disputed in some cases.
In various linguistic areas, hundreds of castes had a gradation generally acknowledged by everyone  Restrictions on feeding and social intercourse, with minute rules on the kind of food and drink that upper castes could accept from lower castes.
There was a great diversity in these rules, and lower castes generally accepted food from upper castes  Segregation, where individual castes lived together, the dominant caste living in the center and other castes living on the periphery.
This characteristic of caste was missing from large parts of India, stated Ghurye, and in these regions all four castes Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras did agriculture labour or became warriors in large numbers  Endogamyrestrictions on marrying a person outside caste, but in some situations hypergamy allowed.
Risley and for fitting his definition to then prevalent colonial orientalist perspectives on caste.
For example, for some early European documenters it was thought to correspond with the endogamous varnas referred to in ancient Indian scripts, and its meaning corresponds in the sense of estates.
To later Europeans of the Raj era it was endogamous jatis, rather than varnas, that represented caste, such as the jatis that colonial administrators classified by occupation in the early 20th century. The name stuck and became the usual word for the Hindu social group.
In attempting to account for the remarkable proliferation of castes in 18th- and 19th-century India, authorities credulously accepted the traditional view that by a process of intermarriage and subdivision the 3, or more castes of modern India had evolved from the four primitive classes, and the term 'caste' was applied indiscriminately to both varna or class, and jati or caste proper.
This is a false terminology; castes rise and fall in the social scale, and old castes die out and new ones are formed, but the four great classes are stable. There are never more or less than four and for over 2, years their order of precedence has not altered.
Varna represents a closed collection of social orders whereas jati is entirely open-ended, thought of as a "natural kind whose members share a common substance.
Thus, "Caste" is not an accurate representation of jati in English. Better terms would be ethnicity, ethnic identity and ethnic group.
Flexibility Sociologist Anne Waldrop observes that while outsiders view the term caste as a static phenomenon of stereotypical tradition-bound India, empirical facts suggest caste has been a radically changing feature.
The term means different things to different Indians. In the context of politically active modern India, where job and school quotas are reserved for affirmative action based on castes, the term has become a sensitive and controversial subject.
Srinivas and Damle have debated the question of rigidity in caste and believe that there is considerable flexibility and mobility in the caste hierarchies.
Perspectives There are at least two perspectives for the origins of the caste system in ancient and medieval India, which focus on either ideological factors or on socio-economic factors.
The first school focuses on the ideological factors which are claimed to drive the caste system and holds that caste is rooted in the four varnas. This perspective was particularly common among scholars of the British colonial era and was articulated by Dumont, who concluded that the system was ideologically perfected several thousand years ago and has remained the primary social reality ever since.
This school justifies its theory primarily by citing the ancient law book Manusmriti and disregards economic, political or historical evidence.That Cote de Pablo's first TV project since her headline-making NCIS exit is on CBS should speak volumes about her post-Ziva relationship with the network she called home for eight years.
Comments. Brother Nathanael May 7, @ pm. Dear Real Jew News Family - We are now in the midst of The Great Transformation in which a VISIBLE “globalization” which blurs ALL national distinctions of what was once Christendom INCLUDING the annihilation of the traditional family prepares the moronic sheeple for a One World Governance, that is, a JUDAIC WORLD ORDER.
REAL WORLD ORDER WHO RULES THE WORLD? "NOT ALL CONSPIRACIES ARE THEORIES" There is a plan for the world - a New World Order - devised by a British/American/European financial elite of immense wealth and power, with centuries-old historical roots.
Alright, space cadets! This is the way it is. If your ship is bigger than a space taxi you gotta have more than one crewperson. There are lots of critical jobs (or "hats") on a spacecraft, the more hats a given crewperson wears the lower will be their job performance.
No, Statistics Canada “surveys” are not mandatory. The law is clear, scroll down to THE SHORT OF IT ON “SURVEYS”. ASIDE (Most of you know this and can skip): The questions about Surveys are made worse by the involvement at StatsCan of the American military-industrial-surveillance complex – – Lockheed Martin Corporation.
Sharia (/ ʃ ə ˈ r iː ə /), Sharia law, or Islamic law (Arabic: شريعة [ʃaˈriːʕa]) is a religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition. It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the attheheels.com Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to Allah's immutable divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its human scholarly interpretations.