More Americans Should Learn a Second Language Whether it's learning Chinese, a language critical to future global commerce, or Spanish, the most widely spoken language in the U. Obama is absolutely right. We live in a global economy and whether it's Spanish, French, Russian or Chinese, Americans lag behind the rest of the industrialized world when it comes to mastering a second -- or even a third -- language. Although Obama's comments also included unwavering agreement for the need for immigrants to speak English, English-Only Luddites have oozed out of the woodwork.
For example, a group of Orange County homemakers did very well at making supermarket best-buy calculations despite doing poorly on equivalent school-like paper-and-pencil mathematics problems Lave, Similarly, some Brazilian street children could perform mathematics when making sales in the street but were unable to answer similar problems presented in a school context Carraher, ; Carraher et al, How tightly learning is tied to contexts depends on how the knowledge is acquired Eich, Research has indicated that transfer across contexts is especially difficult when a subject is taught only in a single context rather than in multiple contexts Bjork and Richardson-Klavhen, One frequently used teaching technique is to get learners to elaborate on the examples used during learning in order to facilitate retrieval at a later time.
The practice, however, has the potential of actually making it more difficult to retrieve the lesson material in other contexts, because knowledge tends to be especially context-bound when learners elaborate the new material with details of the context in which the material is learned Eich, When a subject is taught in multiple contexts, however, and includes examples that demonstrate wide application of what is being taught, people are more likely to abstract the relevant features of concepts and to develop a flexible representation of knowledge Gick and Holyoak, The problem of overly contextualized knowledge has been studied in instructional programs that use case-based and problem-based learning.
In these programs, information is presented in a context of attempting to solve complex, realistic problems e. For example, fifth- and sixth-grade students may learn mathematical concepts of distance-rate-time in the context of solving a complex case involving planning for a boat trip.
The findings indicate that if students learn only in this context, they often fail to transfer flexibly to new situations Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, The issue is how to promote wide transfer of the learning.
One way to deal with lack of flexibility is to ask learners to solve a specific case and then provide them with an additional, similar case; the goal is to help them abstract general principles that lead to more flexible transfer Gick and Holyoak, ; see Box 3.
They might be asked: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: The National Academies Press. A third way is to generalize the case so that learners are asked to create a solution that applies not simply to a single problem, but to a whole class of related problems.
For example, instead of planning a single boat trip, students might run a trip planning company that has to advise people on travel times for different regions of the country.
Under these conditions, transfer to novel problems is enhanced e. Problem Representations Transfer is also enhanced by instruction that helps students represent problems at higher levels of abstraction. Helping students represent their solution strategies at a more general level can help them increase the probability of positive transfer and decrease the degree to which a previous solution strategy is used inappropriately negative transfer.
Advantages of abstract problem representations have been studied in the context of algebra word problems involving mixtures. Some students were trained with pictures of the mixtures and other students were trained with abstract tabular representations that highlighted the underlying mathematical relationships Singley and Anderson, Students who were trained on specific task components without being provided with the principles underlying the problems could do the specific tasks well, but they could not apply their learning to new problems.
By contrast, the students who received abstract training showed transfer to new problems that involved analogous mathematical relations. Research has also shown that developing a suite of representations enables learners to think flexibly about complex domains Spiro et al. Relationships Between Learning and Transfer Conditions Transfer is always a function of relationships between what is learned and what is tested.
Many theorists argue that the amount of transfer will be a function of the overlap between the original domain of learning and the novel one. Measuring overlap requires a theory of how knowledge is represented and conceptually mapped across domains.
A general wishes to capture a fortress located in the center of a country. There are many roads radiating outward from the fortress. All have been mined so that while small groups of men can pass over the roads safely, a large force will detonate the mines.
A full-scale direct attack is therefore impossible. Students memorized the information in the passage and were then asked to try another task, which was to solve the following problem Gick and Holyoak, You are a doctor faced with a patient who has a malignant tumor in his stomach.
It is impossible to operate on the patient, but unless the tumor is destroyed the patient will die. There is a kind of ray that may be used to destroy the tumor.As machine learning evolves, we need to update the definition of ‘data scientist’ the choice of whether to use a neural network or a statistical model was determined by the requirements of.
At Google, we don’t just accept difference—we celebrate it, we support it, and we thrive on it for the benefit of our employees, our products, and our community.
Google is proud to be an equal opportunity workplace and is an affirmative action employer. We all know that MS Word can be easily confused, but there’s no need for us to face the same confusion. Weather, that stuff up there in the sky, is the ‘condition of the atmosphere with respect to heat or cold, calm or storm, etc’.
Learning a language – 10 things you need to know regardless of whether it’s a computer or book or a teacher in front of you.” As children we learn languages organically and. Whether we like it or not, employees are constantly being judged on their capabilities and benchmarked against their peers.
And, unlike studying for a qualification, the goalposts in the workplace. Do We Really Need to Learn to Code? By Gary Marcus and Ernest Davis. June 6, but it remains to be seen whether the vision of the self-programming computer will become a reality anytime soon.